Views: 217 Author: Lydia Publish Time: 2023-11-30 Origin: Site
You've completed the initial phases of your new design and are eager to see the project through to completion, but there are a few jobs left to complete, like selecting the low voltage dc input power connector. Choosing the correct dc power connector is a simple operation that may be accomplished quickly and easily. Because these connectors are inexpensive and widely available, choosing one of the most regularly used versions is often the best choice for power supply connections.
The manufacturer specifies both the current and voltage ratings for low voltage dc power connectors, also known as barrel connectors. When employing these connections in power transmission applications, these ratings ensure dependability. The barrel connector jack and plug each have one exposed conductor and one recessed conductor. The recessed second conductor has the advantage of making it difficult to mistakenly short the two conductors. Furthermore, because barrel connections are almost solely used to give power to electronic equipment, there should be little risk that sensitive components would be destroyed by connecting a power connector into an inappropriate receptacle.
While there is no clear standard for defining barrel power connectors, the electronics industry has settled on the labels jack, plug, and receptacle. The jack is often powered and installed in the appliance, either on a PCB or in the chassis. The plug is usually found on the electrical cord and provides power from the power supply. A receptacle is also installed on a power cord and is powered by a corresponding plug.
Gender definitions for dc power connections are less defined than those for jacks, plugs, and receptacles. Some in the industry avoid using the terms male and female when discussing connectors, however many engineers have adopted the center pin configuration for distinguishing the gender of barrel power connectors, following the traditions of the RF connector business. The connector with the center pin is considered male, while the mating connector is considered female. Users should be aware that some jack and plug combinations have the center pin in the jack while others have it in the plug.
The inner sleeve (which interfaces with the inner pin) should be slightly larger in diameter than the mating pin, however manufacturers have not agreed on a standard clearance. Because the conventional mating connection to the outer sleeve is a cantilevered flat spring, the clearance between the outer sleeve and the mating connector is not important to the connector's good operation.
The depth of insertion is a third dimension stated on dc power connections. Jack insertion depth measurements are frequently less than plug barrel lengths, which can be explained by two factors. First, when the connections are mated, the plug barrel may not need to be entirely encompassed by the receiving jack, therefore a larger plug barrel length than the jack insertion depth is permissible. Second, the depth of the chassis wall must be addressed in some configurations. When the connectors are joined, the extra depth must be factored into the plug barrel length.
The typical dc barrel plug or jack contains two conductors, one for power and one for ground. The center pin is normally connected to power and the outer sleeve to ground, however inverting the connections is allowed. Some power jack versions have a third conductor that connects to the outer sleeve conductor to form a switch. The switch function can be used to detect or notify the introduction of a plug. Another application of the switch function is to switch between power sources based on whether or not a plug is placed into the jack.
The design engineer must provide the mounting type of the dc power connector in addition to the connector pin and sleeve dimensions. Panel mounted connectors offer the advantage of being able to be installed practically anywhere on the product chassis, but they do require cables to connect to the accompanying circuitry. PCB mounted connectors are offered in horizontal and vertical mechanical orientations, with surface mount (SMT) or through hole electrical connections. Many jacks with SMT signal connections will additionally incorporate through hole pins or tabs to improve the jack's mounting durability. Although the tabs will be attached to the PCB via through holes, they may or may not be electrically connected to the jack. Mounting stabilization pins are often non-conducting and interference fit into PCB holes, whereas some horizontal jacks require an aperture to be carved out of the PCB into which the jack rests. Mounting the jack within the thickness of the PCB reduces the jack's physical height above the PCB.
Despite its ability to carry current and voltage, the conventional audio connector (tip, ring, and sleeve) is not recommended for use in power applications for several reasons. For starters, not all manufacturers specify this type of connector for the required voltage and current capabilities. A second point of concern is that the connector's plug (male) half is frequently linked to the power supply. This plug has all of its wires exposed, making it easy to produce a short circuit between two or more of them. Another reason to avoid utilizing audio connectors for power supplies is to avoid mistakenly putting electricity into an audio input circuit and destroying sensitive components.
USB connectors are one of the most well-known and extensively used connectors available to design engineers, with data transfer and power delivery capabilities. However, prior to the introduction of the USB Type C standard, the maximum power rating of a USB connector was relatively limited.
USB Type C connectors have four power and four ground contacts, enabling for greater current ratings of up to 5 A and higher voltage ratings of up to 20 V, allowing for up to 100 W of power transmission. USB Type C connectors have become an appealing alternative for power only applications due to their accessibility, wide adoption, and easy design integration, but its high-speed data transfer specification might be cost prohibitive where charging or power is the sole purpose. As a result, a growing trend is to use power only USB Type C connectors with no data transmission pins, offering consumers with a more cost-effective choice for power-only designs. Read our blog post on USB Type C in power applications for more information.
The procedure of selecting low voltage dc power connectors should be rapid and painless. Depending on the physical constraints of their design, design engineers can choose from a variety of dc power jack mounting types. To ensure mechanical compatibility between the selected plugs and jacks, describe the pin and barrel sizes and lengths with care.
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